XPS systems typically use Al or Mg targets to produce soft x-rays. Calculate
the wavelengths of the Ka1 and Ka2 x-ray lines of Al and Mg starting from the binding energies of the K and L core electrons.
We use Cu x-ray tubes in our lab experiments but sometimes harder x-rays are desirable and then Ag is better choice. (a) What are the wavelengths of the two Ag Ka x-ray lines? (b) Calculate the x-ray absorption coefficient for Pd
due to the photoelectric effect for Ag Ka and Ag Kb x-ray lines using the equation for sph included below.
Include only the L and K shells of Pd in your calculation. (c) How thick of a Pd metal foil would you recommend for use as a filter to reduce the Kb intensity from a Ag x-ray source?